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Understanding the Details, Historical past & Myths

Understanding the Details, Historical past & Myths


Have you ever ever had the possibility to look at the film: ‘Memoirs of a Geisha’? Or not less than learn the e book? I’ve finished each at a younger age and I immediately fell in love with Japan’s geisha as I witnessed their distinctive magnificence, grace, and self-discipline. The truth is, ever since then, I’ve been deeply enamored by their mystifying world — which, fortunately, has nonetheless survived as much as this present day!

I say ‘survived’ as a result of I used to be additionally within the samurai (Japan’s olden warriors who usually serve a feudal lord or daimyo). I badly wished to witness their noble lifestyle; nevertheless, it stumbled upon the upsetting indisputable fact that they now not exist.
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Apparently, their social class has died down across the late 1800s after the emperor favored a contemporary western-style military. At the moment, there could also be descendants and individuals who nonetheless attempt to apply samurai swordsmanship, BUT it’s not the identical given how the entire samurai life-style and system are non-existent anymore.

The geisha custom just isn’t as previous because the samurai however it IS previous and I have to say… I’ve developed some form of gentle concern that they may ultimately disappear too — which I hope to goodness, they received’t. This fear of mine makes a little bit of sense as a result of there aren’t that lots of them anymore. To place it into numbers, again within the Nineteen Twenties geishas numbered round 80,000. The present quantity? It’s now estimated to be just one,000 to 2,000! Due to this, I’ve really made ‘assembly or seeing a legit geisha‘ as an merchandise on the very high of my bucket checklist.

Fortunately, I’ve already made that dream come true from a few of the many journeys I’ve finished to Japan! For example, I talked to a geisha in Tokyo and Kyoto over a dinner banquet, I performed video games with 2 younger senior maiko in Niigata, I caught sight of a official maiko (who was on her option to work) in one in every of Kyoto’s slim alleys, and I even watched two younger Japanese maikos carry out in Gion Nook amongst many others.

I positively really feel fortunate for having the possibility to endure these breathtaking experiences, and now that I’ve met and seen them, my want for his or her practices to proceed for eternity has been strengthened much more! Additionally it is my want that extra folks would get to know their custom — and the true one at that.

I say this as a result of there’s a LOT of misunderstandings concerning the geisha occupation. The truth is, ‘Memoirs of a Geishais a major instance of this! Because it was made in Hollywood, it absolutely had a number of points that had been false (if not overly romanticized) thereby contributing to the already rising misconceptions of the tradition. Because of my discussions with a number of geishas, in addition to to my lengthy analysis sprees, I’ve come to study MORE of the reality.

At the moment, I shall be imparting that information with you in order that you can also be cleared of any misconceptions that you will have about them.

~ Topmost photograph from Shutterstock

Geisha Details

» What’s a Geisha?

A geisha, which interprets to English as “performing artist” or “artisan”, is a high-class skilled and conventional feminine entertainer in Japan skilled in varied types of artwork. Within the west of Japan comparable to in Kyoto, they use one other identify which is geiko. Whereas within the Kanto space (round Tokyo), they name them geigi. For Tokyo and different locations, they simply generally use the phrase geisha.

For the sake of consistency on this article, I’ll use the phrase geisha. In addition to, it’s a well known time period that’s used to embody each that of western Japan’s geiko/geigi and Tokyo’s geisha.

Geishas are normally employed to take care of company (who’re predominantly and historically male) throughout banquets, meals, events, and different events as they show their abilities by varied methods comparable to dancing to a tune performed with a shamisen (a Japanese stringed instrument), initiating video games, doing the artwork of dialog, and extra.

For these affairs, they meet up with their company at an ochaya* (tea home) or at a ryōtei (conventional Japanese restaurant) and cost their clients by the hour with flat charges.

Ochaya are extremely unique locations that usually solely grant entry to common or trusted clients. That is primarily due to how they function: they don’t invoice their company on the finish of the night, however relatively as soon as a month for all of the bills accrued.

That being mentioned, there’s a particular stage of belief concerned. For example, not nearly anybody can go as much as an ochaya with out being launched to it first by an already current buyer (and that current buyer would primarily threat their repute by trusting the conduct of the individual that they’re introducing to the ochaya). Going by this prepare of thought, hiring a geisha to have a dinner banquet with just isn’t simple particularly in case you’re not Japanese and never well-connected, as it’s unique AND costly.

Fortuitously, most ochaya have lessened their restrictions prior to now years, and vacationers can now have a geisha dinner in the event that they undergo partnered journey businesses and motels. Nevertheless, you’ll nonetheless want to organize a substantial funds for this as a result of a full dinner may be value round 50,000 yen and up ($470~ or Php 22,500~) per geisha or maiko. This does NOT embrace dinner but which begins at 10,000 yen ($95~ or Php 4,500~), in addition to an interpreter in case you don’t know tips on how to converse Japanese (since geishas and maikos don’t prepare in English dialog).

Need to meet with a geisha?

Come and take a look at these encounters and/or dinner actions that you are able to do both in Nagoya or Tokyo! (English translators included).

TRIVIA: Some folks will say that it’s a ‘waste’ of cash to have a geisha dinner in case you don’t converse Japanese — the magic of all of it might stop to exist! They are saying that it is because you’ll be lacking out on one in every of their finest abilities: dialog or witty banter.
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Regardless of the case, that is all as much as you in fact! The way in which I see it, it’d certainly be a waste of cash, BUT I don’t suppose it’s a foul concept to do it anyway and get an interpreter (higher but, drag alongside your Japanese buddy). And in case you’re up for it, there are additionally already a number of skilled and acknowledged foreigner geisha in Japan who can converse English. I went by this expertise myself and I loved it a lot! (To study extra about these fashionable foreigner geishas, go right here).

Why are geisha costly to e book?!

To start with, not solely is their coaching lengthy, meticulous, and dear (which they need to slowly pay again to their okiya or geisha home), however their entire apparel (handmade kimono that are designed only for them) are pricey too — it could actually begin at $10,000!
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» What Is a Maiko?

A maiko, which interprets to English as “dancing little one”, is an apprentice geisha.

Traditionally, a maiko begins her coaching at a younger age of round 3 or 5 years previous. However now, their coaching begins at a a lot later date. In Kyoto, they begin at 15 or 16, and in Tokyo, they begin at 18.

Nonetheless, any lady who desires to enter the neighborhood doesn’t have to start as a maiko as a result of it’s mentioned that they will already proceed to be a geisha. Nonetheless and the identical, they’re required to do not less than a yr’s value of coaching earlier than debuting as a full-fledged geisha. For ladies who’re aged 21 to 23 and above, they’re deemed to be too previous to change into maikos so that they already change into a geisha once they get accepted to the neighborhood — once more, nonetheless with coaching beforehand.

In Tokyo, maikos are known as as hangyoku (“half jewel”) and so they can stay to be so till they’re 23. For the sake of consistency on this article, I’ll use the phrase maiko.

Historical past of Geisha

» The First Geisha

Geishas began to seem within the pleasure quarters of Japan earlier than the flip of the 18th century — however one attention-grabbing indisputable fact that you will need to know is that the primary geishas had been really males, known as taikomochi (drum or taiko-bearer, although not all of them used this Japanese drum) or hōkan (jester).

These male geishas principally began as ‘jesters’. They attended to daimyo (feudal lords) within the thirteenth century and supplied leisure, if not assist advise their lord about army methods. Within the sixteenth century, they grew to become storytellers (otogishu or hanashishu) and even battled alongside their lord at instances. When peace started within the seventeenth century, they relatively needed to change their function to being pure entertainers.

The primary feminine geisha (onna) appeared round 1751 and she or he was known as a geiko (which now stays to be the time period for geisha in Kyoto). Finally, teenage odoriko who had been expensively-trained “dancing women” or dancers-for-hire began to seem as effectively.

By the top of the 18th century, feminine geisha outnumbered the males and the latter’s roles have as soon as once more modified — this time round, as assistants to the ladies throughout events. As time handed additional on, being a geisha was primarily thought to be a feminine occupation. It grew to become so widespread that quite a lot of them began to work primarily as entertainers. Anybody who was promoting intercourse (which was towards their meant form of work) had been imprisoned in an effort to shield the oiran who had been licensed high-class courtesans or prostitutes at the moment.

At the moment, there are solely about 8 taikomochi in Japan — 4 in Tokyo, 1 in Kyoto, and the remaining are scattered across the nation.
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UPDATE: I used to be informed that as of 2012, there exists a working geisha who additionally owns an ‘okiya’ and he’s male! His identify is Eitaro, dubbed as Japan’s solely male geisha who performs as a feminine dancer, and he’s present in Tokyo’s Omori district.

When World Conflict II started, geishas began to say no. They needed to shut their okiya (geisha homes) and the teahouses, in addition to bars, needed to shut store as effectively. Because of this, they went to different locations in Japan for security or for work (comparable to in factories, and many others.). It didn’t assist both that some prostitutes began to confer with themselves as “geisha women” to American army males.

Nonetheless, when the struggle ended, the returning geishas made it a degree to reinstate their conventional requirements as highly-skilled entertainers, and on the similar time, they proposed elevated rights for his or her occupation.
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» Is an Oiran a Geisha?

Under no circumstances! As I’ve beforehand talked about, the geishas set themselves other than oirans who had been high-ranking courtesans.

In Japanese historical past, courtesans have completely different ranks and oiran had been thought of increased in standing than the widespread prostitutes often called yūjo (lady of delight). The oiran had been even recognized for his or her exclusivity as they serviced higher clientele at exorbitant costs; in spite of everything, even when they had been engaged in prostitution, they had been extremely expert in varied conventional arts. The truth is, the highest-ranking oiran even has a say within the clients that they need to soak up.

In 1800, nevertheless, the oiran slowly fell out of demand when rich Japanese males and retailers began to choose geishas as their companion of alternative resulting from their ‘stylish’ and fashionable demeanor..

Merely put: the rise of the geisha was the autumn of the oiran.

The numbers of oiran steadily declined after which vanished when Japan outlawed prostitution in 1956. At the moment, there are solely oiran “reenactors” who proceed to carry out in Japan (largely in Kyoto) — however they don’t present courtesan companies, they largely do exhibits and parades often called oiran dōchū.

Left & center photograph by: Japanexperterna / CC | Proper photograph by: Keisuke Makino / CC

At the moment’s Geisha

» Present quantity

The geisha custom is dwindling resulting from its exclusivity, costly worth, and conventional type; however, it’s in Kyoto the place it stays to be the strongest as we speak. Kyoto can also be the head space the place assembly geishas stays to be the very best and most prestigious in its 5 hanamachi (geisha districts or “flower cities”), particularly: Gion Kōbu, Ponto-chō, Kamishichiken, Gion Higashi, and Miyagawa-chō.

If we’ve to place it into numbers, as I’ve beforehand talked about, there solely about 1,000 to 2,000 geisha now, and they’re present in a number of cities throughout Japan — Kyoto, Tokyo (with well-known hanamachi of Shimbashi, Asakusa, and Kagurazaka) and Kanazawa. It’s mentioned that there are about 300 in Kyoto — however the precise numbers there in addition to in different areas are unknown to us outsiders.

Talking of hanamachi, these are locations which might be typically known as the ‘flower and willow world’ (karyukai). Provided that they’re speckled with okiya and ochaya institutions which might be owned and run by girls, all the facility is held by females. Males in these districts are relatively primarily artisans, dressers, or wig makers. If I could add, youngsters who’re women are additionally most well-liked in order that they will later tackle the enterprise — apparently sufficient, this can be a trait that’s in distinction to the remainder of Japan.
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» Foreigner or Non-Japanese Geisha

As a way to sustain with the instances, some okiya have been accepting international nationals as geishas. Thus far there are just a few of them which have been admitted and beneath are their Japanese names. (Knowledge beneath is as of 2016.)

  1. Ibu — Debuted in Anjō of Aichi Prefecture within the Ichikoma okiya on October 5, 2010
    • Eve is initially from Ukraine [Retired ~ source]
  2. Juri — Debuted within the resort city of Yugawara in Kanagawa prefecture
    • Maria is initially from Peru [Unsure if still working or retired ~ source]
  3. Fukutarō — Debuted in Izu-Nagaoka district of Shizuoka Prefecture in 2011
    • Isabella Onou is initially from Romania [Retired ~ source]
  4. Sayuki — Debuted in Asakusa district of Tokyo in 2007 and have become the primary registered international geisha in Japan. In 2011, she has been disassociated with the Asakusa Geisha Affiliation and has since labored independently in Fukugawa district.
    • Fiona Graham is initially from Australia [Working ~ source]
  5. Rinka — Debuted in Shimoda of Shizuoka Prefecture on September 2011
    • Zhang Xue is initially from China [Unsure if still working or retired ~ source]
  6. Mutsuki — Debuted in Shinagawa district of Tokyo
    • Yixin is initially from China [Working ~ source]
  7. Kimicho — Debuted in Oimachi district of Shinagawa, Tokyo on August 2015
    • Sydney Stephens is initially from America [Retired in 2017 due to personal reasons ~ source]

I had the pleasure of assembly and speaking to Kimicho! Learn concerning the interview right here.

You’ll not see foreigner or non- Japanese geishas admitted (but) in Kyoto since they nonetheless stay to be strictly conventional. Nonetheless, it’s nice to see that the remainder of Japan is slowly opening its geisha custom to others who love the tradition, even when they aren’t of Japanese descent!

Prime Myths

1 MYTH: Geishas are prostitutes.
TRUTH: Geishas are NOT prostitutes.
They’re and all the time shall be highly-skilled entertainers. It helps to notice as effectively that prostitution is illegitimate in Japan ever since 1956. Plus, though there have been a few of them within the olden instances who provided intercourse to their purchasers, it helps to notice that it was NOT part of their true conventional perform or coaching — name them rebels if you’ll, and so they would possibly simply be so since as I’ve mentioned beforehand, a geisha is imprisoned prior to now ought to they ever provide intercourse to others casually (additionally as a option to shield the oiran).

In fact, a geisha is free to pursue private relationships with any man that she meets by work; however such would almost definitely by no means be informal nor will it ever be her objective for such an interplay. They reside in a geisha district (hanamachi) which is a really closely-knit neighborhood, and given how vastly they worth their repute, they’d all the time choose their relationships fastidiously. Ought to they ever fall in love and need to marry, then typically they have to retire as a result of geishas (most particularly in Kyoto) are anticipated to be single. Nonetheless, there are actually quite a lot of locations in Japan like Tokyo that enable married, divorced, and/or girls with youngsters to change into geishas.

2 MYTH: Geishas have private relationships with a patron or danna.
TRUTH: That is NOT true as we speak.
It might have been a convention prior to now for them to take a danna or a patron who was rich sufficient to assist the bills associated to her coaching and different prices in an effort to have a private relationship in return (which was not inherently sexual). However as we speak, it is rather uncommon for a geisha to have a private relationship with a danna, and may they ever have one (which is uncommon as a result of most of them like to be autonomous now), it’s primarily due to the patron’s want to assist delay the geisha arts and traditions — nothing extra. Once more, a geisha and her danna can fall in love however intimacy is rarely considered as an trade for the danna’s monetary assist.

3 MYTH: Younger women are bought to okiya (geisha homes) by their dad and mom due to poverty.
TRUTH: It might have occurred method prior to now, however these days, NO.
At the moment, there are not any younger women bought to an okiya resulting from poverty; in spite of everything, it’s extra of a private profession alternative in an effort to change into one. The truth is, quite a lot of women have to steer their dad and mom as we speak in an effort to allow them to change into a maiko/geisha. As soon as a woman’s dad and mom consent to it, she must be interviewed first by the affiliation in addition to the feminine house owners of the okiya (geisha home) earlier than being accepted.

4 MYTH: Geishas are led by males and cash (as portrayed within the film: Memoirs of a Geisha).
TRUTH: That is NOT true.
It helps to all the time do not forget that the film was primarily fictional and set to be ‘sellable’ to audiences. (Effectively, hiya Hollywood!). Being a geisha is like being an artist or a performer — it’s a decent occupation. And very like any profession you pursue in life that you’re keen about, you do it since you adore it whereas additionally incomes your residing from it. They don’t go round chasing after males both; it simply so occurs that the those that they current their artwork and performances to are predominantly males.

5 MYTH: Maiko goes by mizuage whereby a patron would pay to take their virginity. (As additionally seen in ‘Memoirs of a Geisha’).
TRUTH: Nope, in no way!
This sort of mizuage was really a ceremony finished by younger courtesans and prostitutes prior to now — NOT by maikos. Although there are speculations that this mizuage (taking of the virginity) was finished by some maikos prior to now, what’s necessary to recollect is that that is NOT finished as we speak nor was it ever historically accepted to be finished by geishas for his or her maikos. The one form of mizuage that maikos have finished was a ceremony whereby older geishas would symbolically lower the topknot of the maiko’s hair to suggest her coming of age (of changing into an grownup).

How you can Turn out to be a Geisha

Coaching to change into a geisha during which you begin as a maiko begins at 15 or 16 in Kyoto and 18 in Tokyo (prior to now, it began at 3 – 5 years previous). Today, women will need to have not less than graduated from center college (besides Kyoto who has particular legal guidelines for it) earlier than they will make the choice to coach as a maiko and ultimately change into a geisha.

Nevertheless, it’s extra widespread for younger Japanese girls to begin coaching after highschool or school, and much more would start later. If they’re above 21 to 23, they may already begin as a geisha (with a yr’s coaching) since they’re too previous to be a maiko. Having mentioned that, one doesn’t have to begin as a maiko since they will already begin to prepare as a geisha — however in fact, the attract of the general complete coaching course of as you progress from a maiko to a full-fledged geisha may be fairly an expertise. It could additionally add extra to at least one’s hype or repute locally.

So in an effort to change into a geisha, when you attain the age requirement, you or your dad or mum have to contact, for instance, Ookini Zaidan or the guild for all of Kyoto’s hanamachi companies. You need to fulfill their different primary necessities, particularly: you will need to not be taller than 160cm, you’re not less than 43kg in weight, are prepared to coach within the conventional arts for years with out contact with your loved ones, and many others. As soon as they contemplate you candidate, they may ship out your profile to okiya homes that is perhaps inquisitive about coaching you.

NOTE: An okiya will shoulder all of your bills for meals, coaching, garments, and many others. as soon as you’re accepted by them. From that time onward, you’re bonded by a contract, and whenever you begin working, you may slowly repay these money owed.

If you’re non-Japanese, Kyoto is a tough setting to crack in so that you’re higher off making use of to different locations like Tokyo. If not making use of to an okiya your self, will probably be lots higher if you understand somebody who can introduce you to an okasan or a mom of an okiya/geisha home. Talking of which, do NOT attempt to apply in case you don’t know the Japanese language but; in any other case, completely no okiya will take you!
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» Maiko Coaching

Photographs by: My Kyoto Photograph / CC

There are a number of levels to endure in case you first prepare as a maiko. To start with, the stage of…

Shikomi. As you’re taken in, you’ll first be thought to be a shikomi or somebody who principally works as a helper for the okiya as you do errands, assist different geishas and maikos costume up, and many others. Throughout this stage, you’re additionally slowly being skilled into the life-style. Instance: you’ll be taught to regulate to sporting a standard yukata as regular clothes, develop out your hair, study the right demeanor, go to highschool (kaburejo or nyokobo) to study the humanities of the shamisen instrument, dance, tea ceremony, and many others.
» This will final for about 6 months earlier than going to the subsequent stage.

Minarai. At this level, you’ll begin your formal coaching and be thought to be a minarai which accurately means “studying by watching”. On this stage, you’ll have an older geisha for a mentor whom you’ll name onēsan (sister) and this shall be a bond that may keep for all times. You might be then anticipated to accompany your onesan to ozashiki (dinner banquet occasions) so as to sit and observe her in addition to different geishas and maikos work together with the purchasers. By this manner, you’ll not solely achieve actual insights into the job however additionally, you will achieve the possibility to know potential purchasers. At instances, your onesan will let you carry out however she is going to preserve an in depth eye on you. (FYI: Oftentimes, you’ll know in case you noticed an actual maiko or geisha whenever you see them being accompanied by a singular shikomi or minarai wearing a easy kimono or yukata with no make-up or equipment on.)
» This coaching interval begins a month earlier than your official debut as a maiko.

Misedashi. That is your official debut as a maiko and this ceremony is sort of a grand public get together whereby your identify shall be unfold out throughout the hanamachi. Additionally, you will endure a ritual known as as sansankudo (additionally finished in wedding ceremony ceremonies) the place you trade cups along with your onesan, different geishas, and senior maikos — individuals who you are actually sure to. Afterward, you are actually free to carry your individual events and carry out in festivals; however you’ll all the time be a part of your onesan at her occasions and additionally, you will proceed studying from her.
» Usually, this stage will final about 4 to five years.
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» Debuting as a Geisha

Photograph by: My Kyoto Photograph / CC

Erikae. Across the age of 21 to 23, you may be promoted as a full-fledged geisha in yet one more public ceremony known as erikae or “turning of the collar” whereby because the identify implies, they may flip your purple collar to white as an indication of your transition to maturity from that of a maiko lady right into a geisha lady.

Geisha. You’ll proceed learning, working, and holding ozashiki banquets till you repay your money owed to your okiya. You could possibly additionally tackle a minarai/maiko underneath your wing. When your money owed to your okiya are settled, you could select to maneuver out, work independently, or proceed residing within the okiya.

Hiki-iwai. This can be a celebration that marks your retirement as a geisha, and it may be due to varied causes: you need to give up the geisha life, you need to pursue one other profession, you’re too previous to work publicly, you need to get married, otherwise you need to change into an okami-san (proprietress of both an ochaya or okiya).

Realistically-speaking nevertheless, not quite a lot of maikos make it to the geisha stage as a result of the life-style may be fairly troublesome. Additionally, as soon as somebody does change into a geisha, it’s additionally widespread for them to retire inside 5 years of their debut.

Anyhow, geishas and maikos alike are celebrated and so they have a HUGE fanbase — not solely in Japan however worldwide too!

How you can Determine Geisha & Maiko

As you go to Japan, be aware of the beneath factors that will help you shortly differentiate a geisha from their apprentice (maiko):

» Age

As I’ve already mentioned, maikos normally begin their coaching at a younger age (15 to 16 for Kyoto and 18 for Tokyo) so they’re much youthful than a full-fledged geisha who usually begin at round 21 to 23.
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» Make-up

.On a typical day, a maiko shall be seen sporting essentially the most recognizable characteristic of geishas: the total white face make-up. Geisha, however, do NOT have this make-up on except they’re going to do a particular efficiency or dinner banquet.

Maikos will all the time have a noticeable white band of unpainted pores and skin on their hairline (since they don’t put on wigs) and their eyebrows shall be shaded in purple or pink, their cheeks blushed, and their eyes outlined with black eyeliner and purple eyeshadow. Throughout the early levels of their coaching, ‘junior’ maikos (or minarai) will solely have their decrease lip painted in purple, and as they advance (as ‘senior’ maikos), each of their lips shall be painted however solely in a skinny line.

For geisha who have to have their face painted once they work, other than having no seen a part of uncovered pores and skin close to their hairline (provided that they put on wigs), their eyebrows may also solely have a faint shade of purple, their eyes outlined in black (if a ‘senior’ geisha) or with a slight purple (in the event that they’re a ‘junior’ geisha) and their lips painted totally in purple.

Left photograph by: Joe Baz / CC | Circle & proper photograph by: Annie Guilloret / CC

NOTE: This white make-up totally covers the geisha or maiko’s face, neck, and chest — aside from the nape (known as komata or the again of an individual’s neck) which they may be sure is seen once they would, afterward, put on their kimono (as seen in a few of the photographs on the earlier a part of this put up). This half is taken into account to be a historically erotic space in Japan so that they intensify this sensuality by usually leaving an inverted “V” form on a geisha and an inverted “W” form (sanbonashi) on those that simply debuted as maikos. This type known as as eri-ashi or eriashi.
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TRIVIA: Within the olden instances, geishas practiced ohaguro or the Japanese customized of blackening one’s enamel and it lasted till the top of the Meiji interval (although at instances, there are nonetheless some Kyoto geiko as we speak who typically have pitch-black enamel). In these instances, pitch-black objects had been thought to be lovely so that they had their enamel blackened particularly when they’re coming of age as an indication of maturity and sweetness (women, boys, and even nobles did it too).

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» Hair

Geishas normally put on wigs, whereas maikos have their hair styled naturally. A geisha’s wig and a maiko’s pure hair are often styled by highly-skilled artisans. Currently, nevertheless, conventional hairstyling is slowly phasing out as a result of it could actually typically result in balding on the highest of their head. Nonetheless, it stays to be practiced.

Maikos have their hair styled within the wareshinobu type consisting of two “wings” and an enormous bun on the heart; however when a maiko turns senior, she is going to placed on an ofuku coiffure and this normally begins after 2 to three years of being a maiko (the one distinction with the wareshinobu type is how the ofuku type has an oblong piece of fabric pinned on the backside of the bun with no purple cloth protruding).

The wig worn by geisha known as katsura that’s styled within the taka shimada coiffure. At instances, this wig can change and styled right into a kyoufuu shimada type. In instances when they aren’t sporting a wig, geishas put up a yohatsu coiffure which accurately means ‘western type’ since it’s modeled to western updo’s or perms.

Left photograph by: My Kyoto Photograph / CC | Proper photograph by: Hiromu Aoki / CC

TRIVIA: All maikos have their hair styled elaborately each week. To maintain their coiffure intact, maikos sleep with their necks on small helps or particular pillows known as as takamakura. I can’t discover a picture on-line that I’m allowed to make use of however in case you’ve watched the film Memoirs of a Geisha, you’ll know what I’m speaking about.

HAIR ORNAMENTS. Maikos put on extra elaborate ornamental hair ornaments known as as kanzashi and the designs can differ relying on the stage of coaching that they’re at the moment in. A primary-year maiko will put on shidare-kanzashi that flows down the complete aspect of their face from her hair to her chin, symbolizing their youth. A junior maiko could have a kanakodome or particular hair decoration in addition to a purple piece of silk (signifying that she’s nonetheless a baby) on the middle of her bun together with quite a lot of hair ornaments, notably a daikin (fundamental entrance kanzashi), an enormous seasonal kanzashi (worn on the left a part of her hair) and a katsuyama bridge (an enormous crown-like kanzashi positioned in entrance of the bun). For senior maikos, essentially the most notable change is that they may cease sporting the katsuyama bridge and begin sporting colourful kushi (comb that’s much less ornamental than a katsuyama bridge, thus signifying maturity).

In distinction, geishas put on easier kanzashi or smaller hair ornaments like a kushi (comb-shaped kanzashi), maezashi (small hairpins), tama kanzashi (single-colored bead hairpin), and hanemottoi (silver paper wires atop the hair).

That is known as an “aisatsu” which is principally the greeting or introduction finished by both a maiko or geisha earlier than the beginning of their dance efficiency at an ozashiki banquet.

Photographs by: My Kyoto Photograph / CC

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» Outfit & Footwear

KIMONO. A maiko normally wears a colorfully-designed hikizuri kimono (Japanese conventional garment) that has furisode or long-sleeves garment that just about contact the bottom (generally worn by single girls), together with a wider, longer, and heavier obi (sash) that’s set to appear to be a bow because it drapes right down to their again displaying the top which has the kamon or the emblem of the maiko’s okiya or geisha home — this obi is definitely known as as a darara obi. A maiko’s collar can also be a definite characteristic as a result of it’s thick and embroidered, hangs very loosely, and is especially within the coloration purple (different colours can solely be gold or white). It’s going to slowly have white embroidered patterns as they advance of their coaching however it should all the time stay to be dominantly purple.

TRIVIA: Wanna know the most costly merchandise in a geisha or maiko’s outfit? It’s the pocchiri or obidome which is an adjunct on the obi (belt) made of pricy actual jewels comparable to jade, agate, quartz, pearl and extra that may simply match the worth of a luxurious automobile. Typically nevertheless, a pocchiri accent is simply normally worn by a maiko.

Geishas, who’re extra mature, put on extra subdued however refined kimonos with shorter sleeves (kosode) which might be normally in a single coloration with a easy sample on the backside. Their kimono can also be mentioned to be within the tomesode type or essentially the most formal kimono a married lady can put on which is basically signifying their maturity. Additionally, their obi is shorter and it seems like a sq. bow knot on the again known as a ‘taiko musubi obi’. Lastly, their collars are utterly white and aren’t as unfastened. (Nonetheless, each maikos and geishas put on kimonos based on the season).

NOTE: Wanna attempt to put on a kimono? There are kimono rental outlets in Tokyo! Learn right here to study extra.

TRIVIA: Questioning concerning the ‘bag’ that they normally carry together with them? That’s known as a kago or a bag with a bamboo base and it incorporates enterprise playing cards, dancing followers and different equipment — however by no means electronics, as they aren’t allowed to carry them whereas working. Furthermore, even a maiko and geisha has variations within the bag: maikos have brilliant and colourful kago, whereas geishas have minimal or solid-colored kago.

FOOTWEAR. Maikos typically put on excessive picket sandals to forestall their kimono from touching the bottom, and they’re known as as okobo. Geishas use shorter picket sandals known as zori or senryo geta. Maikos will put on this too if the scenario requires it; however they put on okobo extra.

Left photograph by: Japonismo / CC | Proper photograph by: Tugumi Yoshikawa. / CC

IMPORTANT NOTE: The maiko within the photograph above is sporting a black kimono as a result of she has simply formally debuted as a maiko. However total, a maiko’s kimono is far more colourful and daring with larger patterns (a geisha’s patterns on her kimono solely begin on the backside hem and by no means goes over the waistline). Plus, a maiko’s obi normally has her okiya’s crest printed on the backside (as additionally seen within the photograph above).
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You’ll be able to even differentiate a junior from a senior maiko from the patterns on their shoulders — a junior maiko has them on each shoulders, whereas a senior maiko solely has it in a single shoulder.

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» How you can spot pretend a maiko and geisha

You may need heard of makeover (henshin) studios in Japan that may costume vacationers up as a geisha or maiko for a day. With this in thoughts, in case you have ever seen one while you’re round fashionable spots in Japan — like in elements of Kyoto or Tokyo — it’s extremely seemingly that you’ve got witnessed or took an image with a pretend one.

That will help you establish and spot these vacationers who’re solely dressing up, see beneath the a number of options that they may possess. Finally, henshin studios make it a degree to NOT costume up their purchasers authentically; in any other case, they are going to be shut down by the authorities.

Have a look at the third one, she has a digital camera along with her! Maikos aren’t allowed to make use of their cellphones and any electronics whereas working.
  • They’ve mismatched hairstyles, make-up, and clothes. Bearing in mind the descriptions that I’ve made beforehand of genuine geishas and maikos’ options, a vacationer in disguise will all the time have a mistaken mixture of traits. For instance, most of them could have the ornamental lengthy hair decoration (of a junior maiko) but with each her lips painted (like a senior maiko or geisha) and with a wig on (although some outlets can now do your hair too). They may also have shorter sleeves on the kimono regardless of being dressed up as maiko.
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  • They’re strolling round crowded areas. A real maiko or geisha is aware of that she is sought out by vacationers and so they can get ‘mobbed’ in a way; so, you’ll NEVER discover them strolling by a populated space whereas of their full regalia. What they normally do is stroll by again streets and alleyways in an effort to keep away from the gang. Therefore, in case you ever see a maiko or geisha strolling casually by a widely known place, she is unquestionably a vacationer dressed up as one.
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  • They’re out through the early time of the day. Geishas and maikos generally work within the evenings; although it’s potential that they’re booked for an early banquet, it nearly occurs not often.
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  • They’re willingly taking photographs with others. Geishas and maikos are literally paid for the time that requires them to get from level A to level B; so when they’re out on the streets, they may by no means cease by to take photographs with vacationers. (You’ll be able to all the time ask them although in case you can take a photograph, however do it fast). Subsequently, in case you see one who’s taking her candy time pleasing a crowd of vacationers to take a photograph of her (except it’s an official occasion) then she is a vacationer who had a makeover.
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  • They’re accompanied by different people who find themselves in regular clothes. Noticed a geisha or maiko with an elder or a companion who has to help her whereas she walks in her excessive picket footwear? That’s a vacationer. Actual geishas and maikos are skilled to stroll effectively with their zori or okobo sandals. In addition to, they all the time know their method round city too. If they’re ever accompanied, it should normally be by a younger lady in a kimono who will carry her belongings (as talked about beforehand, this shall be a brand new maiko in coaching who known as a ‘shikomi’ or ‘minarai’).
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Really, you wouldn’t concentrate on it however you may need had a official geisha or maiko in your midst particularly whenever you’re strolling round in Kyoto. After they’re of their regular garments (comparable to a yukata), figuring out them will naturally be powerful — except you’re a fan who acknowledges their face or except they’re sporting their signature kimono and conventional white make-up (shiro-nuri).

NOTE: There’s one other variety other than henshin vacationers whom you could possibly simply mistake as official geishas and maikos, and so they’re known as furisode-san or kimono-san.
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A longtime enterprise by ‘Furisode Gakuin’ at Tokyo’s Asakusa district within the Nineteen Nineties, these furisode-san are paid entertainers solely who mimic the look and companies of geishas and maikos at a less expensive worth (normally round 25,000 yen or $250 for a 2-hour get together). They solely have about 3 months of coaching and once more — they’re NOT actual geishas nor maikos.
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The truth is, a lot of the geisha experiences that you just may need learn in different journey blogs are literally experiences with a furisode-san. How do the Japanese really feel about these folks? A mixture of approval and disapproval. Approval since they assist collect curiosity in actual geishas; disapproval since they deem it as disrespectful to the true custom.
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How then can you make sure that you’re not reserving an expertise with a furisode-san? Aside from a budget worth as an indicator, just be sure you e book by official journey businesses who solely search to offer actual geisha/maiko experiences (be aware: I’ll replace this part quickly with related hyperlinks for reserving legit geishas).

The place to Discover and Meet Geisha?

The geisha world must survive. It used to solely be completely obtainable for the wealthy or well-connected Japanese, however now it’s potential for different folks in addition to vacationers to fulfill and see them by journey businesses and motels.

However definitely, like I discussed above, a non-public face-to-face dinner banquet or get together can nonetheless show to be expensive. If such is the case for you — don’t fret as a result of there are nonetheless different methods to see REAL geishas and maikos at a a lot reasonably priced worth as listed beneath…

  • Go e book a spot in Niigata Hanamachi Chaya’s program in Niigata Metropolis. That is the most cost-effective option to meet, play, and speak to an actual geishas up shut because you solely need to pay 3,000 yen ($26~ of Php 1,300~). It’s similar to an ozashiki (dinner banquet) expertise. To search out out extra about it, learn this: Meet, Play & Discuss with Niigata’s Furumachi Geigi (Geisha) for Solely $26!
  • Go to Miyako Odori in Kyoto. This can be a yearly spring dance throughout April finished by Kyoto’s geishas and maikos. Ticket costs begin at 2,500 yen ($24~ or Php 1,100~) and you may see extra data about this right here.
  • Go to Kamishichiken in Kyoto throughout February and July to September. Geishas and maikos of this district serve tea and wagashi (conventional Japanese sweets) to about 3,000 company in an annual open-air tea ceremony held on February 25 (the plum-blossom pageant within the Shinto shrine of Kitano Tenman-gū). Moreover, ever since 2010, there’s a beer backyard that opens as much as the general public on the Kamishichiken Kaburenjo Theatre from July to August (6PM to 10PM) the place you may get the possibility to be served by maikos and geishas. At evening, geishas would additionally typically to conventional dances.
  • Go to the slim alleyways of Gion, Kyoto to catch sight of a maiko or geisha. The primary time I caught a glimpse of an actual maiko was once I was strolling by Gion (on my option to Gion Nook). It was all unplanned since I used to be simply following the quickest strolling route proven to me by Google Maps! I used to be mindlessly going by slim streets when ‘lo and behold, I noticed a maiko rising from a close-by alleyway who proceeded to face on the nook, seemingly ready for her taxi. From what I bear in mind, it was across the Tominagacho space; my buddies informed me that it was potential that the maiko I noticed visited a close-by shrine/temple earlier than going to work (which they normally do).
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“When is the very best time to identify a maiko or geiko in Kyoto?”

Their work usually begins at round 6PM to 8PM so it’s potential to see them whereas they’re on their option to the teahouse (strolling or getting on a taxi). However ordinarily, you may have a greater likelihood of discovering geishas or maikos at round 10PM to 11PM on the streets of Gion once they make their method again to their okiya. (Once more, be aware of my ideas above on tips on how to spot the true ones!).

Sadly, there’s NO assure that you will notice them as they are often elusive and they are often anyplace! Although in case you have the time, it’s advisable to linger in a single place to extend your probabilities of sighting them. It’s mentioned that the commonest hubs can be the road of Pontocho Alley finish of Shijo-dori and Hanamikoji-dori (round 5-6PM) provided that quite a lot of the okiya are discovered there. Plus, as I discussed above, it doesn’t damage to cross by the encircling shrines or temples since they may have made a cease there to hope earlier than going to work.

TIP: If you wish to do a guided tour round Kyoto and study extra about geishas, you may be a part of this geisha district tour.

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NOTE: Don’t count on to see geishas and maikos of their full regalia round Gion throughout “Obon Pageant”, the annual Buddhist occasion for commemorating the souls of 1’s ancestors, as a result of they don’t work at the moment. This occurs through the center of August.
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ETIQUETTE: Must you ever see a geisha or maiko as you undergo the alleyways of Gion, be respectful. Taking a fast photograph is ok so long as you don’t get of their method; however in fact, it’s additionally extra tactful in case you ask for his or her permission first. Additionally, NEVER ever contact them and their kimono nor pull them again to make them cease and pose for you; that’s simply plain impolite BUT additionally as a result of it’s important to do not forget that their kimonos are INCREDIBLY costly. A well-known geisha as soon as mentioned this: “We aren’t Mickey mouse and this isn’t Disney World, we’re not right here to entertain the general public, we’re right here to entertain our patrons.”

  • Go and watch the present at Gion Nook in Kyoto. This can be a theater that presents common one-hour exhibits of seven performing arts in Kyoto — one in every of which is the well-known kyo-mai dance efficiency by maiko dancers. There are 2 exhibits day-after-day at 6PM and 7PM [see schedule here] with costs for adults at 3,150 yen ($30~ or Php 1,400). I went to this present and I cherished it! (Lots of people on TripAdvisor left such unhealthy critiques for this present, however that’s primarily as a result of they didn’t learn their pamphlet beforehand; most of them didn’t perceive that there are 6 Japanese performances which might be other than the well-anticipated maiko dance.)
  • Go to Azuma Odori in Tokyo. A dance efficiency by the geishas of Shinbanshi, Tokyo is held yearly on the Shinbanshi Enbujo Theater in Could. (For more information, go right here).

Different FAQ About Geisha & Maiko

Are geishas prostitutes or courtesans?

They’re NOT prostitutes. Geishas are and all the time shall be highly-skilled entertainers — nothing extra, nothing much less. It helps to notice as effectively that prostitution is illegitimate in Japan ever since 1956. The truth is, this concept that geishas are prostitutes may need come about not solely from Hollywood motion pictures that misrepresented them but additionally from individuals who have mistaken geisha for “oiran” (the true high-ranking courtesans again in olden Japan; since 1956, they now not exist).

How can I apply to change into a maiko (apprentice geisha)?

In hanamachi communities like these in Kyoto, a few of the primary necessities is that you just have to be a Japanese lady who graduated from center college, you have to be 15 or 16 years previous, you will need to have black hair, you will need to not be taller than 160cm, you’re not less than 43kg in weight, are prepared to coach within the conventional arts for years with out contact with your loved ones, and many others.

Normally, you or your dad or mum would wish to contact the guild of all of the hanamachi companies to use — as soon as they contemplate you candidate, they may ship out your photograph and profile to okiya (geisha homes) that is perhaps inquisitive about coaching you. Different okiya would possibly even require an introduction, whereas some others will settle for functions from nearly anybody by e-mail or phone.

I’m a foreigner, can I change into a geisha?

If you’re non-Japanese, Kyoto is a tough setting to enter into as a result of they’re nonetheless fiercely conventional. You’re higher off attempting your possibilities in different places like Tokyo who’re extra lenient in direction of accepting foreigners. To do that, you may apply to an okiya your self by cellphone or e-mail, however will probably be lots higher if you understand somebody who can introduce you to an okasan or a mom of an okiya/geisha home. Talking of which, do NOT attempt to apply in case you don’t know tips on how to converse the Japanese language but; in any other case, completely no okiya will take you!

Why do most Japanese women need to change into geisha or maiko?

The commonest reply is that they’ve been extremely impressed by the elusive and alluring world of the hanamachi and its neighborhood of stylish geisha. Many of the women, nevertheless, don’t debut as a geisha due to the troublesome life-style; whereas others merely simply need to expertise working as a maiko with no plans to attain a geisha debut.

Can a geisha get married?

So long as an individual is working as a geisha, they have to stay single — therefore, a geisha should not get married. The one factor they’re allowed to be “married into” is their artwork or occupation. If a geisha really desires to get married, they must give up or retire as a geisha and that is celebrated by a ceremony known as hiki-iwai. As soon as they give up, it’s not potential to return again as a geisha however it’s potential to change into an okami-san (proprietress of both an ochaya or okiya). That is usually the norm in locations like Kyoto, however there are actually quite a lot of locations in Japan like Tokyo that enable married, divorced, and/or girls with youngsters to change into geisha. Likewise, maiko aren’t allowed to have boyfriends.

Do geisha and maiko have days off?

For geisha, as they’re already skilled for the occupation, they’ve extra freedom to take days off in addition to create their very own schedule. Nevertheless, for maiko who’re geisha-in-training, the principles are fairly strict as a result of they’re anticipated to deal with the normal arts. Normally, they’re solely allowed 1 or 2 days off monthly!! Which means they’d not see their household throughout their entire coaching interval. Maiko can take longer holidays for the three main holidays in Japan although, comparable to New Yr, Golden Week (a group of 4 nationwide holidays in 7 days held round Could), and Obon (Buddhist occasion in August).

How a lot is a geisha and maiko’s wage?

From the second {that a} maiko is accepted to an okiya, they’re bonded by a contract whereby the okiya will shoulder ALL their bills for lodging and coaching; in trade, as soon as a maiko really begins performing, she is going to regularly repay that debt to the okiya by her work. So no, maiko don’t obtain a wage as a result of they aren’t full-fledged geisha but (however on their days off, maiko are given a small allowance).

Geisha, however, obtain compensation and it’ll rely upon the quantity of labor they obtain that’s, in fact, altogether depending on their abilities and recognition. Their precise wage just isn’t extensively shared however to present you an concept, it could actually begin from $3,000 to $10,000 — and extra! If they’re extremely fashionable, geisha will even usually obtain luxurious presents and gadgets from followers, patrons, and purchasers.

Why is the make-up on the face of a geisha white?

It’s mentioned that previously, provided that there was no electrical energy, sporting white make-up as a basis (shiro-nuri) was practiced as a result of a geisha’s face will then be higher seen within the candlelight. This beauty apply remained as we speak and has change into a signature look of each geisha and maiko. In any case, it helps create a putting distinction to their total look in a kimono.

What’s the costliest factor worn by a geisha or maiko?

Aside from the kimono, the most costly accent is normally the pocchiri or obidome which is an adjunct on the obi (belt) that’s made of pricy actual jewels comparable to jade, agate, quartz, pearl, and others. These are sometimes pricey, beginning at a worth of $5,000 and past (a few of which may simply match the worth of a luxurious automobile). Typically nevertheless, a pocchiri accent is simply normally worn by a maiko.

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I hope this text helped make you achieve extra perception into the mysterious but fascinating world of geishas and their apprentice maikos. It took me some time to complete this however I actually loved writing it… and I hope you loved it as effectively!

If in case although that that is the primary time you’ve heard of Japan’s geishas, it’s due to this fact additionally my hope that you just’ve now found an awesome appreciation and assist for his or her wondrous traditions.

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P.S.: If you’re extra educated about geishas than me and that I’ve by chance made a false assertion above, do let me know within the feedback beneath. In any case, I perceive that this custom maintains an air of mysteriousness and anonymity because it provides to their total ‘attract’; due to this fact, there is perhaps some conflicting information on-line and in some supplies and interviews. Regardless, I’m fairly assured with the accuracy of the issues above particularly after doing lengthy hours of analysis after which conversing with genuine geishas to confirm my information. Let me know!